This article is from WeChat public number: shell (ID: Guokr42), author: Daniel Dinale, Mariian Baird, compiling: Cloud, editing: plum, plum, and plums from: Dongfang IC
It is also an interview that male entrepreneurs do not usually meet, and one of the problems that women entrepreneurs are often asked is: "How to balance the cause and the family?"
A few days ago, Zhang Quanling, the former CCTV presenter, current investor and entrepreneur, answered this question clearly: "I hate this problem." She explained, "The problem itself is biased" - for women In fact, careers and families seem to be inherently contradictory, and women are born to encounter such contradictions.
Partial reply from Zhang Quanling during the interview, Economic Observer "BOSS said"
Many people always acquiesce that the most important and necessary thing for women to do is to take care of their families. There are even disguised calls for women to give up their jobs and return to their families. Whether or not these people take into account the individual wishes of women, they generally explain in a manner that seems concerned about the future of all mankind that the more women work, the lower the fertility rate, and that fertility must be used to ensure social and demographic replacement.
Before the early 1980s, the relationship between female employment and fertility was indeed negatively correlated. This is consistent with people's traditional views and is not hard to understand. A person's energy and time is limited, and work and fertility are very hard work. Without the appropriate social security support mechanism, it is easy to take care of the partner of children together.
However, statistics from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) show that the relationship between female employment and fertility in developed countries has become significantly positively correlated since the late 1980s. In other words, while more and more women are entering the labor market, fertility rates in the region are also rising.
The relationship between female employment rate and fertility rate |theconversation
First, how do developed countries do it?
However, why is this? It sounds a bit uncommon.
The Nordic countries such as Denmark and Norway maintain a fairly high female labor ratio and the fertility rate is not bad. This is because Sweden and Denmark have done a good job in supporting women's work and gender equality.
The welfare systems in these countries are very good, such as maternity leave, childcare subsidies and other welfare settings are very generous; and the use of public resources, the child care has been strongly supported. After giving birth to a child, women can use a variety of public services and do not spend too much time and energy on childcare, medical care and education.
Moreover, we generally believe that these countries have a higher awareness of gender equality and are also reflected in parenting. For example, men also have maternity leave. In the family, men are more likely to take responsibility for parenting together, which helps the partner to pursue career development. Therefore, women there are more likely to be in the coordination of family and career than women in other regions.
However, compared to the Nordic countries, the cost of childcare in English-speaking countries is higher, and the policies to support working women are relatively small, but their fertility rates are not far behind the Nordic countries.
According to the study, this is related to a series of comprehensive factors in the English-speaking economy. These factors have little to do with women's empowerment in traditional cognition, but they do help women balance employment and childbirth. Among them, the most important factor should be the flexible labor market.
II. The service sector contributes to female employment
Compared with the northern European countries, especially Denmark and Sweden, the developed countries of the English department give less support and welfare to working parents. Australia, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and the United States all have high child-rearing costs, according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2018. On average, parental spending in these countries accounts for 1/3 of couples' total income. The average for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is 13 percent, while Sweden is even lower, with only 4 percent of child care spending.
Then the problem has come, although it is somewhat behind the Nordic countries, but why can these English-speaking countries also increase the female employment rate while the fertility rate is relatively improved?
The answer may lie in the economic structure of these countries.
In recent years, the proportion of manufacturing industries dominated by men in the past has gradually declined, while at the same time, the service industry is expanding. For example, up to 80% of occupations in the US are in the service industry, about 70% in Germany and about 68% in Italy.
The proportion of manufacturing (blue) is decreasing year by year, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States
One of the benefits of the service industry is that it is more tolerant of sudden disruptions in the profession. For the mothers who gave birth to future generations, this feature of the service industry is more friendly and humane. In the United States, 91% of women work in the service industry, while men account for 68.5%.
In addition, for people with general skills (general skills), the service industry also offers more jobs. For example, if a teacher has the professional skills of a teacher, he can move between different schools, and even if the career is interrupted, it is relatively easy to maintain his professional value. Non-traditional career structure is more conducive to flexible career arrangements for women (and men).
III. Traditional industry and gender concepts to curb fertility
In the workplace, female employees are more difficult to raise to senior management, that is to say, the "glass ceiling". This is a vertical segregation in occupational segregation due to gender and, in addition, a lateral segregation. Women are more likely to be limited, or even directly rejected, in certain sectors of the industry because of their gender, such as manufacturing.
Germany, Japan's economy, maintains its own manufacturing base, but it may be at the cost of low fertility. Manufacturing jobs tend to work in a continuous and uninterrupted manner, and are therefore more suitable for men who do not need to consider the first October or post-natal breast-feeding, and for women who are trying to balance their work with their families, manufacturing jobs are not very suitable.
Countries such as Spain and Italy have relatively low parental spending, but people there are more traditional about gender roles. At home, men are reluctant to share services traditionally believed to be what women should do, which seems to curb both women's workplace participation and birth rates in the country.
Of course, it must also be considered that because of the high cost of child care in the English department, women have to go out of the house and undertake a part of the family income sources, taking care and work into account. It is only a flexible form of work and a more equal employment market, which allows women to reduce the concerns that women cannot re-join the career force before choosing to have children.
4. Balance is difficult, but not impossible.
The experience of the northern European countries has shown that strong support for child care, coupled with other generous benefits for parents, helps to provide employment rates for women and women's willingness to have children. However, in order to help women balance work and family and freely choose the job that best suits them, government policy support is not enough, and the structure of the labor market is also crucial.
This shift in developed countries means that “promotion or reproduction” may be achieved through effective coordination and balance in all aspects. Drawing on the experience of these countries, it is important for policy makers around the world to clarify the factors that can coordinate employment and fertility.
I hope that our mothers can work happily and make a difference. The choice of birth can not only be respected but also supported.
Source of compilation:
This article comes from WeChat public number: husk
Author: Daniel Dinale, Marian Baird, compilation: Cloud, Editing: plum SMS
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