This article from the micro-channel public number: Nutshell (ID: Guokr42), Author: Emily Dreyfuss, translation: Porco Rosso, Editor: travel knowledge initiatives.
As the saying goes: at home rely on parents, go out rely on friends. Just set foot on the way back, you must have a deep experience.
There are some ways you already know. For example, to get a good job, you have to build a network-connect with people and meet key people. But a study published on January 14 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) found that women were not enough for the networks that had the greatest impact on men.
Women's work is not enough.
Women also need to master some key information that men don't need to master. Where are they going to get this information? From other women.
The study specifically looked at graduates of a prestigious MBA program that used their students' emails to map out their social networks. (The study did not disclose the name of the project to protect student privacy.) For men and women involved in the project, can they obtain high-level management positions and whether they occupy a “high centrality” in peer networks (high centrality) ) Presenting relevance, that is, the key is whether they know the peers who are responsive in their own social networks. For job seekers, such interactions can provide favorable information, such as where to recruit people, the level of wages of each family is high and low, and the reputation of a company.
A screenshot of a brother-in-law 's "Little Times" movie
But the researchers also found that women in high positions had an additional trait: they had a high school mentality and thus received general job information. They will also form a close inner circle of (inner circle). With other women with extensive connections
This close circle of women offers a crucial benefit to female job seekers-the authors of the study call it "women-specific private information and support"-and gain insight into the following questions:
Is this company nice to women?
Are female leaders respected?
Is there any female hostility in the workplace?
Does the company have any intention of increasing gender diversity?
With the answers to these questions, several researchers suspect, women can apply for jobs that are best suited to them, prepare for interviews based on the company's culture, and negotiate better with the company. Men, by contrast, do not have to worry too much about their new job acceptance or exclusion because of their gender.
Figure | ERA
"frankly, most jobs today are still male-dominated, and some private information is important for women's advancement, but it's less important for men's promotions." Lead author Brian Uzi (Brian Uzzi), a data scientist at Northwestern University, said.
What information did the leaders’ emails reveal?
As of 2018, only 25 of the Fortune 500 companies are women, accounting for only 5% of the total. Women face serious obstacles in those areas dominated by men, not only when they are seeking to move to power, but also after obtaining these positions. In the same position, women earn less than men, they are prejudiced on maternity leave, and they are often asked to take on “women’s tasks” (such as serving people or secretarial work) that are not related to their jobs. There are other gender inequalities.
In the study, Wu Qi and several other authors analyzed the peer network and work arrangement of 728 students. They were divided into two sessions and graduated from the MBA program in 2006 and 2007 respectively. Since all of them have taken the leadership position, the researchers ranked their positions according to their employer's reputation and other factors. Of these students, 542 were male and 186 were female, which is about the same proportion of the approximately one in four women found in researchers at the National Business School.
Gender injustice is still common | JustScience
Researchers have an in-depth understanding of the information of these students and use this information to construct their social networks. Their specific approach is to look at the exchange of emails between students. The total number of these emails is 4.5 million (visible in the first decade of the 21st century, MBA graduates are mainly via email), all of which are anonymous. And erased the specific content. Researchers only need to see who and whom they have communicated with each other, and how often they interact with each other to figure out the connections between students and figure out how strong these connections are.
They also obtained anonymous student records, allowing for the inclusion of GPA scores, work experience, and other relevant information. In addition, they did some informal interviews with the students.
They found that men who had established effective connections with their influential peers were 1.5 times more likely to be employed as senior leaders after graduation than those who had poor connections with their peers. However, women who also have strong connections among their classmates have a poor way out. Women who find the ideal job, in addition to having a strong network of students, have established a close circle with at least two or three women.
For women, there is some information that only others can provide, nyt.com
To a woman, a friend's friend is her own friend.
Professor Kathy Faessler (Casey Fiesler), who studies social computing at the University of Colorado in Boulder, said the study's conclusion that women rely on the advice of other women when looking for jobs is consistent with her personal experience. But she added: "We don't know why some women have these networks, but some don't. Are there anything special about women who are actively looking for other women? It is possible that they are already extroverted. "
Researchers do consider social abilities as a variable that needs to be controlled, but the indicators they use to measure social abilities are students' self-reported interest in team sports (sports such as football and basketball). Fesler said she is a very outgoing person, but she will definitely score low on this indicator.
But overall, she and other scientists interviewed said the study was well worthy of praise. For example, Christopher Riedl, a network scientist at Northeastern University, said: "This research is cool, I like it very much. I think this is a very interesting job, it has done between big data and randomization. A good combination, and thus a causal inference." Riddle himself did not participate in the study.
Riddle also pointed out that the conclusion of this study is surprising, because the research of network scientists usually shows that "small group network" will only have a negative impact on people. “But some of them convincingly show that for small female job seekers, the small group network can actually add a lot of contacts. It omits a dimension in interpersonal communication, making friends of friends directly become your friends. I have not seen this result elsewhere," he said.
Photo taken by Friends 2
These findings provide interesting insights into how women build support networks in their career advancement. First, it confirms the notion that it is important for women to build a network of purely female contacts. There is a growing number of activities and venues aimed at building intimate groups, and one lesson of the study is that such groups do work for women. But Uzzi warned that such groups run the risk of self-isolation, and that if the members of the group only interact with each other, that will hinder their progress.
The study argues that women need a small circle of women only, and a network of contacts and networks that are more connected and accessible. Men seem to be unable to benefit from the same-small circle. Therefore, although a bowling team full of men is a good place to make friends, it may not have an added benefit to men's job hunting activities. And a bowling league full of women is good for members to seek employment.
Figure | Search Network
In addition, Wuqi also emphasized that the internal circle that has significant help for women has several unique characteristics:
First of all, the women in the circle have a very close relationship, they communicate frequently and spend a lot of time on each other.
Secondly, women in the same internal circle will refer the other party to the large network where they are located, while the large networks of different women do not overlap each other.
"Women have to be smart at work, and they have to be more connected than men in order to get to know new friends they don't have the opportunity to meet." Uzzi added.
How to cultivate female social circle?
If you are a woman who is reading this article, you may ask: how can I foster an inner circle of diverse, well-connected, supportive women?
Wu Qi said that some women in the study were able to build a successful network because they accepted a certain randomness. A woman who knows many other women and joins their inner circle is often because she is randomly assigned to a class where she meets a group of people who might not know.
This can give women some inspiration:
Don't just rely on the network around you, like your co-workers or college friends, because the people they know may be the people you know.
Take the initiative to go to a strange environment, where you are more likely to know women from different backgrounds, and they are more likely to lead you into a network of contacts that you could not have joined. Organizations that offer such opportunities for women have emerged.
Graph KAY'S BLOG
"You have to participate in regular liaison activities as you would like, but you have to do something else," Riddle said.
You may think that this will greatly increase your workload, and it is true. Wu Qi also agreed that women must run close friendships for professional progress, which is an extra job that men do not have to bear. But these extra work is significant and can have far-reaching implications if your goal is to achieve greater gender equality in US companies, mathematics and technology, and academia.
When it comes to networking, Uzzie says, "Women do two things, and men have only one, so at the same time, men only need to know one new friend, and women share time with two new friends." One of them gave her market information and the other gave her secret information. If you have to split your limited time in two, you must be very wise in choosing. "
All this tells us that for women, networking alone is not enough. These studies suggest that women must be smarter than men to build connections and build different ones. It sounds exhausting, but it's worth the effort.
. Yang, Y., Chawla, N. V., & Uzzi, B. (2019). A network's gender composition and communication pattern predict women's leadership success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201721438. Https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721438116
Source: For Women Job Seekers, Networking Like a Man Isn't Enough WIRED
This article is from WeChat Public No. (ID: Guokr42). By: Emily Dreyfuss,.
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