Head Figure from: Oriental IC; micro-channel public number from the article: Feng Lun wind horse cattle (ID: fengluntalk); Author: Millet wind; Editor: Wang Tao; editor: Chen Runjiang; Consultant: Wangshu Qi
Less than three months after the shutdown, Nanyuan Airport resumed its excitement.
As an airport with a low sense of presence in Beijing, it has recently become a place for some people to punch in. Only with the opening of Daxing International Airport at the end of September, the 109-year-old airport, which was built in the late Qing Dynasty, will be closed at the same time.
The alternation between the new and the old is not only the airport, with the operation of Daxing International Airport, the practice of traffic-driven regional development will also bring changes to the pattern of light in the south and north in Beijing.
For Beijing, which has a history of thousands of years of capital construction, the focus of the cities built in the past generations has repeatedly shifted, and the uneven development of the South and North Cities has already laid the foundation for it. Even the scope covered by “South City” and “North City” has undergone many changes.
After Xuanwu and Chongwen Districts were merged into the East and West Cities in 2010, people talked about Nancheng, which often refers to Daxing, Fengtai and Fangshan. It is now a vast land of Fengtai and Daxing. It was collectively known as Nanyuan in the Qing Dynasty. In the dynasties, as the royal garden of the Nanyuan area, the Qing Dynasty was able to start large-scale development. To some extent, the development of Nanyuan Airport, located in the northern part of the Nanyuan hunting ground, is the epitome of the history of Nancheng.
In 936 AD, Shi Jingtang, emperor of the later Jin Dynasty, ceded 16 states of Yanyun to Qidan. Two years later, Qidan changed his national name to Liao, and promoted Youzhou, also known as Yanjing, as the capital of the 16 states.
It was also from this time that this area of Nanhaizi Park began to be used as a place for hunting and training schools-according to Liao History, "the Eagle Uighur catches geese and geese, returns in the morning and returns in spring."
It is the Yuan Dynasty "off the horse flying berth", but also the Ming Dynasty "Yanjing Ten scenery".
In 1460, Zhu Qi Town, Ming Yingzong, came to Nanhaizi with Li Dongyang. The latter was famous in the Ming Dynasty, and he was four years old to write one foot. In this year, Li Dongyang, 13 years old, was ordered to work as a poem in the south of autumn wind, and there were two words:``Falling Goose is far away from the clouds, and the Flying Falcon wanted to go down the water'' . Because of the peace of Zhu Qi Town, the south was designated as``Ten Scenery Scenery of Yanjing'' , and south was the South Haizi Hunt.
After the construction of the Yuan and Ming dynasties, in the Qing Dynasty, the Qing court officially renamed Nanhaizi as Nanyuan, which was designated as the Royal Court. Since the Jin Dynasty, the rulers of all dynasties have built palaces in Nanyuan. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, there were royal study rooms in the four large palaces of Nanyuan. The emperors and grandchildren will study here for one month each year.
A total of 12 emperors hunted here in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Among them, Shunzhi Emperor's life, 1/3 are spent in Nanyuan. Nanyuan means a lot to him.
In 1656, Shunzhi Emperor Fulin went to Nanyuan five times. Also this year, in the old Yamen Palace of Nanyuan, he held a canonized ceremony for Dong Efei, which is the witness of his love. Four years ago, in the same place, Qingshunzhi welcomed the Tibetan Buddhist leader who met in Beijing in the name of "Nanyuan Field Hunting and unexpected encounter" to show his importance to Tibetan areas and his closeness to Tibetan Buddhism.
"Nanhaizi 3D Film". Tibetan Buddhist leaders meet with Shunzhi Emperor.
"if you don't dream of smoke, it was a dream of smoke as early as possible." In this place where only the emperor's pro-nobles are allowed in and out, Nanyuan witnessed the rise and fall of feudal empires and the separation of talented and beautiful people.
But when a country goes down, its royal hunting grounds will inevitably decline. The decline of Nanyuan began with the elk deer.
In 1865, a French missionary named Armand David first found "four dissimilar" elk in the royal hunting court. He was so excited that he bought the caretaker officials with 20 stripes of silver and received two complete sets of elk head and horn specimens and sent them to the Museum of Natural History in Paris, France. This was the first time that humans had known elk from an academic point of view, which caused a stir as a new species.
In the following ten years, dozens of elk were transported from Beijing Nanyuan to the United Kingdom, France, Germany and other countries for breeding and exhibition. Subsequently, the elk here was looted. The elk in other parts of China was also quickly extinct.
It was not until the 1980s that the first batch of 20 elks came back from England to the hometown. The legendary Jiangzi tooth mount once again thrived on the Chinese land.
At the same time, backward China began to passively accept new things. Nanyuan Airport debuted in 1910.
Nanyuan Airport in its more than 100 years of history, most of the time in front of the world as a military airport.
In July 1917, with the roar, the Forbidden City suffered an air raid. Three bombs were placed on the Longzong Gate, the Royal Garden Pool and the Corrugment of Longfumen on Xichang Street. Although only one person is killed or injured, his deterrence is enormous.
Stills of the Last Emperor
At this time, Zhang Xunwu Dai Puyi restoration. Aircraft bomb bombing can be described as a downgraded attack. The palace was a mess, the concubine shivered in bed, and the eunuchs were busy putting down the rain in the hallway, thinking that it would stop the bomb.
"I was talking to the teachers in the study when I heard the sound of the plane and the explosion that I had never heard before, making me tremble all over and make the masters look like no one. In a mess, the eunuch gathered around me and hurried back to the hall of nourishing the heart, as if only the place where I slept was the safest place. I got into the bedroom and dared not come out again. " Puyi recorded this scene in my first half of my life.
On the second day of the bombing, Pu Yi once again abdicated, and the 12-day restoration of the farce ended in vain.
In fact, this is not the first time Nanyuan Aviation School has carried out a military mission. As early as 1913, Nanyuan Aviation School cooperated with the 10th Division of the Army to fight in Inner Mongolia and was responsible for reconnaissance. The school has only been around for just 15 years, but has trained 167 flight talents for modern China.
It is precisely because of the important position of Nanyuan in the modern military. In 1922, Feng Yuxiang was stationed in Nanyuan after entering Beijing, and repaired the original Shenji camp barracks as the headquarters.
The headquarters has been renamed as Yuxiang Hotel, and the homophonic processing has both the meaning of paying tribute to Feng Yuxiang and the meaning of "flying in the universe." In 1990, the site was listed as a municipal-level cultural relics protection unit. Into the park, you can still see the inscription on the screen of Feng Yuxiang, who is governing the army with thoughts, struggle and progress.
After the July 7 Incident, the Japanese army completely occupied Beiping and simultaneously violently attacked Nanyuan, Xiyuan and Beiyuan. Feng Yuxiang's deployment of the Northwest Army 29 soldiers and soldiers fought bravely, but due to the disparity between the two sides, the deputy commander Qilin Pavilion and the 132 division commander Zhao Dengyu sacrificed in the battle.
The latter had led the Dadao team in Xifengkou to successfully attack the Japanese army and inspire the anti-warrior. To this end, He Xiangning once wrote "Big Knife", "If you use a big knife, if you use the big knife, the old country will be high. If the fire is like a tiger, you will escape in ten steps."
However, the local victory will not change the overall situation, and the war in Nanyuan was the earliest fierce battle for Chinese troops after the start of the War of Resistance against Japan.
After this war, Nanyuan Airport became an important military base for the Japanese army to invade China's territory during the Anti-Japanese War.
On August 15, 1949, the Central Military Commission formally established a flying squadron at Nanyuan Airport. This is the first squadron of the PLA with operational capabilities. Shortly after the establishment of the squadron, they received the task of participating in the parade of the founding ceremony.
As a result of the situation, the 1949 founding parade set a precedent with three machine guns and 1800 machine gun bullets on each side of the P 51 fighter plane that took off from Nanyuan Airport. The pilot and the plane were personally selected by Marshal Nie Rongzhen.
Previously, in accordance with international military parades, for the sake of safety, no service can carry live ammunition during the parade. At that time, however, the situation was not stable, so in order to prevent Kuomintang air strikes, so had to be done.
Historical opportunities have laid the military tone for Nanyuan Airport, which is located in the former site of the annihilation Flight Academy (also known as the 13th Aeronautical School of the Chinese people's Liberation Army). Since 1969, it has been the 102nd regiment of the 34th Division of the Air Force.
As an airport with a history of 100 years, Nanyuan Airport has also witnessed the development of diplomatic affairs in New China. When Kissinger secretly visited China in 1971, his special plane landed at Nanyuan Airport.
However, as a military airport, the commercialization of Nanyuan Airport is destined to be slow.
The earliest commercialization of Nanyuan Airport can be traced back to 1921. At that time, Nanyuan Aviation School started a tour flight project, ticketing passengers, and a ticket of 30 yuan, a total of 30 minutes to visit the whole city, but the better selling is For only 10 yuan of the B-type ticket, you can take the airport for 10 minutes.
Due to the war, this project was only carried out for 6 days. The commercialization of Nanyuan Airport began in the 1980s. In 1986, Nanyuan Airport was converted into military and civilian use. However, the route is only domestic.
Almost from the beginning, the brilliance of Nanyuan Airport was covered by Capital International Airport. The latter, built in 1958, has three terminals. In 2017, the passenger throughput of Capital International Airport reached 95.8 million, while the annual passenger volume of Nanyuan Airport was only about 5 million, only 1% of the former.
In addition, with the heavy history of Nanyuan Airport is matched by its dilapidated, take the 501 bus to get off, walk into the airport compound surrounded by the terminal. If not for the big wool body says "Nanyuan Airport", said it is a passenger bus station is not contrary to the peace.
Affected by the high and low terrain in the north and south, Nanyuan airport will be flooded in summer. Everyone who goes to Nanyuan airport has experienced the taste of delay, and even temporary refueling before take-off. Of course, Nanyuan Airport is not useless, that is, low fares.
The gap between the two airports in the south and the north is also a reflection of the economic development difference between north and south of Beijing.
In the past, there was the so-called "East Fuxi, the South is poor and the North", and Jingnan was a valuable land in a long historical period. Even with the current GDP data, the total GDP of the four districts of Haidian, Chaoyang, Dongcheng and Xicheng is five times the total value of the four districts of Daxing, Fengtai, Fangshan and Tongzhou. Among them, the GDP of the South 4th District is even lower than that of Haidian District. Nancheng's housing prices, education, technology and other aspects are not enough.
On the other hand, urban development can not escape the winner's law of eating, the Asian Games Village and CBD in the 1990s, and the major development projects such as the Olympic construction after 2000 are located in the North City.
Nancheng too needs a historical opportunity. Undoubtedly, with the end of Nanyuan Airport, Daxing International Airport, which will be put into use at the end of September, has given Nancheng a new hope.
Daxing International Airport overlooking map
From Yangzhou to Zhengzhou, from Paris to Shanghai, the city that has developed in history due to transportation is too numerous to mention. Today, Beijing Nancheng has finally come to this critical crossroads.
"The north city is too busy to be opened, and the south city is a waste pool. Seeing the flowers and gentlemen is quite a solution, and not laughing at the south city is like a cold gray."
Yes, people who know the history of Nancheng, "not laughing at the South City is like a cold gray." However, if the poet Song Song, who made this poem, lived to the present and saw the new changes in Nancheng, his poem may have to be rewritten.
1. "Looking for Nanyuan scenery from the depths of history" Chen Qingru
2. "Nanhaizi, a thousand years of experience: on the orientation and Development of Cultural themes in Nanhaizi area, Beijing"
3. "Duan 瑞 派 派 " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
4. "Nanyuan Legacy" loose wood
5. Nanyuan Aviation School during the period of the Northern warlords (1913 / 1928). Chen Qingru History Institute of the Beijing Academy of Social Sciences
6. < Tong Linge and Zhao Dengyu: two generals of Nanyuan with blood. Hou Jie Ma Xiaochi
7. "three choices before the Founding National Parade." Liu Zhihui China Archives Daily
8. Study on the North-South imbalance pattern of Urban Spatial Development in Beijing
This article is from WeChat Public Account:Feng Lun Feng Maw(ID:fengluntalk);Author:Maize;Editor:Wang Tao;Prepared by:Chen Runjiang;Consultant:Wang Shuqi.
* The article is the author's independent point of view, does not represent the position of the tiger sniffing net. This article was published by Feng Lunfeng Ma Niu authorized Tiger Sniff Network and edited by Tiger Sniff Network. Reprint this article with the author's consent, and please attach the source (虎 sniffing net) and the link on this page. Original link: https://www.huxiu.com/article/308162.html
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