This article comes from WeChat public number: ideal country imagination (ID: lixiangguo2013)
2019 marks the 350th anniversary of Rembrandt's death. To that end, the Dutch National Museum, which has the most complete collection of Rembrandt paintings, launched an unprecedented exhibition in February this year, called "all Rembrandt" (All the Rembrandt), which showcased all the works of the master of art in the collection.
It is conceivable that from February to June Amsterdam will surely welcome people from all over the world who want to linger in Rembrandt's "universe".
Details can be stamped video:
Taco Dibbits, curator of the National Museum of the Netherlands, and Night Watch, waiting to be repaired
Rembrandt is one of the brightest stars in the history of the Netherlands. His big painting "Night Watch" is world-renowned, and his all-character character and bumpy life add a strong legend to himself. Even the art historians who are reserved and prudent, such as Kenneth Clark, will inevitably say this when they talk about his story.
"No matter how unreasonable it seems, I still believe in genius."
“For almost two decades, almost every Dutch painter has been his student.”
“When the historians of historical determinism commented on the social conditions of the Netherlands in the 17th century, it might be said that this is what the Dutch are destined to get. Right – they also got Rembrandt.”
Night Watch, 1642, Oil on Canvas, National Gallery, Amsterdam
However, if it is just such a sigh, I am afraid it will not help us understand the legend of the Dutch genius. Before we walk into the exhibition hall or close to Rembrandt's paintings elsewhere, we need to know more:
Clarke, referring to Rembrandt in Civilization, focuses on his spiritual world. He reinterprets sacred history and myths in the light of human experience, which is an emotional response to revealing religious truths on the basis of belief.
Rembrandt, mentioned by Simon Sharma in "The Power of Art", pays more attention to the human nature of the painter. People can see from him that he will become a noble talent, see the rebirth of historical paintings and follow It’s a big hit.
With the scribing and unspoken words in the two documentaries, Rembrandt's paintings opened for us like a map.
One, one painting, one life and death bet
Imagine you're a painter. What's the worst thing you might have happened to you? Ignored, ridiculed, or disreputable? No, not at all. You can be braver: worse than these misfortunes, you have to cut your masterpiece to pieces. And that's what happened to Rembrandt in 1662.
He had strolled like a rooster on the streets of Amsterdam, proudly accepting the tireless respect of the whole city. Time and time again his work exceeded everyone's expectations, and people's expectations were adjusted again and again according to his new work. He was also the master of a mansion, the leader of an apprenticeship studio, the husband of an affable, wealthy wife, who had collected a house of treasures, even drawings from Manitya and helmets of Japanese samurai.
Self-portrait of 34-year-old (partial), 1640, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London
At the age of 34, Rembrandt met with Titian of the northern Italian painting school. He glanced at himself (the painter enjoyed it very much) and drew < 34-year-old self-portrait (Self-Portrait Aged Thirty-four,1640). Modelled on the portraits of Rafael and Titian, the painter leaned against the pedestal with a somewhat carefree grace, and the silk leg sleeves fell on the stone frame, making him a Venetian aristocrat-indeed, Titian himself.
Titian Self Portrait, 1567, Madrid, Prado Museum
But those are the past twenty years ago.
After 1660, Rembrandt dawned on the opposite side of an amusement park next to the Rose Canal. Here lay drunken men on the side of the road, brawling and fighting in the dark corner of the street at all times. The chewers now look at him as if he had fallen from his peak: his achievements, industries, and the light of talent seemed to fade down. As the parishioners often say: God never allows wealth to accumulate. Thus, in some ways, Rembrandt's fall out of favor in Amsterdam was recognized as a warning of God's inexorable pride.
But after that, it was like deliberately doing something like this so-called recognition, and God gave this once-in-a-lifetime old guy a chance to change everything. The elites of Amsterdam plan to draw a monumental historical painting for their magnificent and brand new white city hall in the richest city in the world. Govert Flinck, the first candidate for this job, passed away. So they turned to the former master, Rembrandt van Rijn, who created the old things in his time that made the heart of the city stop.
Is there any reason for Rembrandt not to accept this task? In fact he can do better.
The series of paintings in the city hall will be a narrative of the history of the Batavia tribes, the ancient ancestor of the Netherlands. This clear history reminds every Amsterdam citizen (the Amsterdamers at the top of the glory may be bored with these clichés), and although they are now masters of their own kingdom, their history stems from the people’s heroic ambitions for the Roman Empire. uprising.
The painting depicts Budavia's leader Claudius Civilis and the heads of the ministries swearing to defend the land and freedom. There is no better beauty than this theme, not to mention the role of Rembrandt. Because if the painting is completed successfully, it will change the rough image of Claudius in the history of painting. The Conspiracy of the Batavians under Claudius Civilis will become Rembrandt's Last Supper and Athenian "School of Athens" is enough to make the painter live forever. Of course, it also allows Rembrandt to make a net worth of 1,000 Dutch guilders.
Rembrandt used all the skills he had learned to draw narrative paintings in his life—the depression of deep space, the carefully selected light effects, and the use of emotional expressive colors. All of them were applied to this grand In the masterpiece. However, no one can predict the result in advance: a very aggressive picture, the pigment is stirred and condensed on the canvas, and then layered, so that the surface of the canvas is pitted and finally dug. Of course, at least it's a painting that expresses content through light and shadow, but on the other hand, it is exactly the opposite of Johannes Vermeer's technique of bathing in crystal clear light in crystal clear light. The picture with a waxy yellow glow gives a sense of mystery and crisis, as if everyone had to escape the burning flames in the picture, otherwise the whole body will be burnt.
Claudius Sivelis leads the Badavians against it, 1666, canvas painting, National Museum, Stockholm
For a painter who has been destitute, this move is not a bet on life and death. Everyone knows Xiaolun’s bold character, and he has unfortunate indifference to humanity and red tape. Because the reservation was first, the municipal governors must be unprepared. They had to take this almost horrible gift from him, but something on the wall was better than nothing. In the days when the paintings were hung in the city hall for a few months, the sergeants kept on paying attention for it all the time: the brutal and rough feeling that was incompatible with the surrounding scenery made everyone unable to eat. In the end, they regretted to make a decision: this painting is no longer needed - very regrettable, nothing more. So the giants were rolled up, and even the shame was taken home by the painter. Rembrandt’s hard work did not receive a penny return.
A mediocre painter, Jolyon Owen (Juriaan Ovens), was asked to fill the blank wall. He turned out to be a substitute at an almost incredible pace, and the new work became perhaps the worst of all the paintings on public display in the Netherlands. No one, however, complained about it at all.
What should Rembrandt do in the face of a behemoth that has become a waste paper? The painting was tailored to the city hall's vast arched space, not even the largest private dining room in Amsterdam's riverfront mansion. If Rembrandt wanted to find a buyer for the painting to recover some damage, he would have to cut it into a small piece suitable for private home decoration. Where the blade crossed, the picture was torn apart.
In fact, compared to contemporary counterparts, artists of the seventeenth century did not exclude the physical processing of the frame. It is not uncommon to divide a painting to fit the size of the space. To a certain extent, the screen cuts of The Night Watch (1642) and Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653) weakened the original conception and drama. The visual effect, although not fatal, gives the impression that the layman has modified the painter's work.
The catastrophe faced by Claudius far exceeds the modification of this type. Reluctantly out of poverty, Rembrandt had to sacrifice four-fifths of the painting and irreversibly changed the way the audience understood the work. Surprisingly, most of Rembrandt's inspiration remained in the remnants after a surgically large cut.
Aristotle staring at Homer bust, 1653, canvas painting, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
"Claudio Sivilis led the Batavians to rebel" is an artistic milestone that has never been seen before. If you are a Dutch parent, you want to tell your child about the difference in Dutch history. How the Dutch people chose their own beliefs and freedoms through the test of war and difficulties, and if you wish to The painting begins (although it has been destroyed) telling the story to the children, then you should take them to Stockholm.
In 1734, 65 years after the death of Rembrandt, someone bought a piece of canvas from a Dutch-Swedish mixed-race family at 60 guilders, which was close to the price of a fancy bed. This painting, which highlights the theme of home-loving, is more than any painting of the seventeenth century. This witnesses the masterpiece of the Dutch tribal civilization's self-identification process, but is now permanently exiled to a foreign country 600 miles north of the homeland. Other township. It should have been the supreme glory of Amsterdam, and every visitor to the City Hall (now the Royal Palace of the Netherlands) should look forward to seeing its true meaning through countless icy halls. But it left the Netherlands forever. This gem is irreplaceable in the long history of human art.
The other "Claudios" will never be born on the land of the Netherlands, nor will it appear in other countries.
Second, "the expression of their trust has a spiritual flash."
In studying the history of civilization, one will certainly try to strike a balance between individual genius and the moral or spiritual conditions of society. No matter how unreasonable it may seem, I still believe in genius. I believe that almost all the valuable things that happen in the world are due to individuals. However, it must be felt that the great men of history Dante, Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Newton and Goethe must, to some extent, be the sum of their times. They are so great and all-inclusive that they cannot develop in isolation.
Rembrandt is an important example of this historical mystery. For historians, it is very easy to imagine that there is no Rembrandt Dutch art – even more convenient; there is no other person in the Netherlands who can compare with him – unlike before Shakespeare and with him. Poet and dramatist.
Rembrandt was so quick and irresistibly successful, and he has always been successful. His copperplates and drawings are always the only ones. For more than 20 years, almost every Dutch painter is his student, which means that the Netherlands Spiritual life needs him and he is created to some extent.
A blinded violinist and family member who accepts alms, 1648, etching prints
Rembrandt was a great poet who needed truth and experience. This need for truth and appeal for experience began with religious reform, which produced the first translation of the Bible. But it takes nearly a century to show.
The most obvious connection between Rembrandt and Dutch intellectual life was his first commission when he moved from Leiden to Amsterdam. The work depicts an anatomical demonstration class by the famous anatomy professor Dr Tulp. The people around him are certainly not students, not even doctors, they are members of the Association of Surgeons. The first great modern anatomist, Van Wessel, often called him Vesalius, the Dutchman, and Professor Tilpp appeared to be self-satisfied and would like to be called regeneration. Visari.
I suspect that he is a quack. He advised his patient to drink fifty cups of tea a day. He was successful-his son became an English baron.
"Dr. Durp's anatomy class." 1632, canvas painting
In any case, Rembrandt did not connect himself to the intellectual life of the time in this superficial, semi-official way, but through the illustration of the Bible. One of the forms of authority is the authority of traditional images, and this form of authority has to be subverted by the demands of experience. Although Rembrandt is actually a student with a deep tradition of classical tradition, he wants to think of every subject as if he has never been painted before and tries to find a counterpart in his own experience.
His spirit is immersed in the Bible - he knows every story of the Bible until the most subtle details, just as the previous translators felt they had to learn Hebrew, so that no fragments of truth were They neglected that Rembrandt also made friends with the Jews in Amsterdam and often went to the synagogue so that he could learn more clearly the knowledge of the early history of the Jewish people. But in the end, the evidence he used to explain the Bible was the life he saw around him. In his sketches, people don't know whether he is recording observations or illustrations of scriptures. These two experiences have been integrated into his spirit.
"The prodigal son returns", copperplate
Sometimes he uses Christian language to explain people's lives, which makes him depict the subjects that do not exist in the Bible, but he feels confident that there is such a subject.
An example is the copper print "Christ preaching forgiveness to sinners." This is a classic composition based on Raphael's two famous paintings that Rembrandt completely absorbed. But this small sanctuary is quite different from Raphael's ideal human body model. The people gathered here are different, some are thinking, some are half-hearted, some just want to be warmer, and some are dozing off. The children in the foreground are engrossed in playing with the dust on the ground, and he has no interest in the teaching of forgiveness. If, as I thought, sympathize with human conditions and tolerate human diversity as an attribute of civilized life, then Rembrandt is one of the great prophets of civilization.
"Christ preaching forgiveness to sinners", copperplate
The psychological reality expressed in Rembrandt's paintings far exceeds that of any previous artist. Of course they are also masterpieces of perfect painting. In Bathsheba, he used a research in natural and ancient reliefs to achieve a perfectly balanced design. We think it can be appreciated as a pure painting, but in the end it is back to the head of the character. When Bathtub saw David's letter, her thoughts and feelings were expressed in a delicate human condition, which is impossible for any great writer in many pages.
We have been told that painting should not compete with literature. This may not be the case in its infancy. Or, literature should not highlight itself until it takes the right form. But when form and content are one, such human revelation should be a sacred windfall.
Bathsheba, 1654, canvas painting
In my opinion, the most important example of this quality is the painting of the Jewish Bride. No one knows for sure what its title should be. Its intention is to portray two characters in the Old Testament, such as Isaac and Rebekah. However, its real theme is obvious. This is a painting about adult love. This is a wonderful fusion of rich, gentle and trustful. The rich is symbolized by the actual depiction of the sleeves. The hand symbolizes gentleness, the facial expression represents trust, and they trust. The expression in the middle has a spiritual flash, which the painter has never achieved under the influence of classical ideals.
"Jewish Bride", canvas painting
Rembrandt reinterprets the sacred history and mythology with the light of human experience. But this is the emotional response when revealing religious truth on the basis of faith. The greatest people of his contemporaries are looking for a different truth—a truth established by reason rather than emotional means.
Related book introduction
"BBC Art Classic Trilogy": "Civilization", "The Shock of New Art", "The Power of Art"
The reflection of three milestones of Art documentaries in the History of BBC, the shock of New Art. The Power of Art.
"one of the most influential figures in the 20th century British art world," (BBC) Kenneth Clark, "the talented communicator" Simon Sharma, is the author of the heavenly regiment, "one of the most influential figures in the 20th century British art world." And Robert Hughes of the World's most famous Art critic (New York Times).
Interesting art maps-from the fifth century AD to the age of our lives, from the master of moral education to the genius of all stereotypes, from the pastoral prairies of Scotland to the Alps through Napoleon's iron-hoofed feet.?
This article comes from WeChat public number: ideal country imagination (ID: lixiangguo2013)
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