This article from the micro-channel public number: Single Reading (ID: dandureading), Author: Xiaoyu, Wu Qi. The first picture comes from: Visual China.
Today is the first letter and reply.
Writer: Xiao Yu (Ph.D. in Political Science, Oxford University)
I came back from a conversation when it snowed and landed in the courtyard. The room was quiet and quiet, and I was writing to you on paper. The conversation was a friend of mine in history, and the title was scary, "what do you expect?" "the politics and history of the next generation," means deliberately arousing the audience. Ideology, institutional change, technological revolution, skimming once again, discussed as expected. But after the fervor, on the way back, suddenly felt a futility. The critique and the manifesto say, but life returns to normal tomorrow, after all nothing has changed. I remember the same situation since the last time you hosted the event. At that time Eva asked me why Lao Qi was always sad. I joked that it was known as Poker Face. Now I know it's warm and cold. So you see, sarcasm is still wrong.
At the symposium, we talked about the decline of the enlightenment discourse. Some people say that the Enlightenment has long since lost, but it always regains its momentum. We can't resist the temptation of evolution, hope that things move forward and take them with us. In the example of his own country, the new culture has come a wave. In the 1980s, it was once again. Now everyone thinks of it and says that it is full of vigor and vitality. Enlightenment is reminiscent of young and powerful. Young is a good dream for ordinary people, but when you wake up to look in the mirror. The fall of the enlightenment narrative can't be helped in the old East. Habermas lost, "good arguments" failed to stand out in the noisy world. Theoretical deficiencies and practical denials are two different things (I am not so mean to Hayden White, calling "Old Ha" theoretically naive), and the enlightenment narrative has lost its operational charm in recent politics.
Jurgen Habermas (June 18, 1929 -), German contemporary philosopher, sociologist
The results of it? The result is the question of "what is after Nora left?" The pursuit of progress, the pursuit of truth and purpose, can not be turned over from the postmodern words. Postmodern teaches you to take off your clothes and jump, but after you come out, you are still shy. Lu Xun gave a speech at the Beijing Normal School, saying that the heroine of the "Doll's House", Nara, took the door and said, "It is not a fall or a return." This is not only for the feminists, but also for the general situation of intellectuals. Spiritual criticism has been addicted, then?
Then we come to the end of the narrative. For a while, whether it was BP or academic Paper, it was all about the beginning of the story. It is not that we have left the story, but the story of what we have to replace the story of the past. Personal perspective and emotional expression seem to replace rational reasoning and preaching. For the grandiose narrative enthusiasm to fade away, I'm afraid only business and technology are left with a look: they still believe they are in an era of progress.
Ordinary people no longer put personal experience under a "big story".
The narrative of "national self-improvement", "modernization" and "market economy" has subtly penetrated into personal life. Even those who reflect on these narratives rely on the power of these "big stories." What now? Not without faith, but without narrative. Looking for macro narratives has become an old fashion. Politicians exhausted their spitting, theorists exhausted their pen and ink, and the general public did not believe it. Do you want to say that this is the result of positive reflection? I think it is a bit too optimistic.
A while ago, I read "Fu Lei's Family Book", which is far from the feeling of reading when I was young. Fu Lei’s message to Fu Cong overseas is as if his parents are hanging out. It’s nothing more than how you manage time, communication, and diligence. It’s like elders’ embarrassment. At the end of the book, there is Yang Yu’s text (she writes more than the money is old). There is also Fu Cong's postscript, which talks about his concerns, because the father of the letter does not seem to be critical and doubtful about a series of socialist movements, but fully accepts and transforms. There is a "not consistent" place with the hard personality that goes to death with the "heart of the child". But that is the brand of an era, and even hard intellectuals will connect individuals with grand narratives.
Fu Lei (April 7, 1908 - September 3, 1966), Chinese translator, writer, educator
To say that everyone today than Fu Lei in those days more reflective spirit? I don't believe that assumption. It can only be said that doubts about Big Story have become mainstream. People experience the uncertainty of the times, the tone of the inexorable, the heart beat. As I told you last time, this generation, especially the young, is deconstructed. They don't have to go to school to pick up the traces of grandiose narratives because deconstruction is the basic condition of their lives. Social or negative or active resistance, not a forceful overthrow, is a profound suspicion.
We see the prosperity of various "sub-disciplinary systems". Whether it is in a few yuan, the core of these story languages is no longer competing for a space with traditional narratives. I am in my own space. This is a cultural parallel universe, in fact, it is our current state of the world. The elite in power is becoming more and more powerless and seems to be unable to reach the “audience”; the traditional resistance is equally weak, because “comrades” cannot be found. This is really the post-modern version of the "cup of wine release". Now there is a common "populist" for the emerging political forces, because they can't find familiar big stories in them, but in the end, who their people are, they can't catch the actual figure, it's an emotion, a skeptical look. . The French philosopher Rancière, which I like very much, says that politics is not about finding consensus, but about breaking the rules, the non-consensus, and the unfinished state. He has captured contemporary political characteristics.
In the age when deconstruction became the mainstream, satire was the universal rhetoric and anxiety became the spirit of the times. We see that the current reaction to events is less enthusiastic support or criticism than satire. Satire, of course, is the expression of doubt, but behind it there is nothing to replace it, so we have to mock reality. The British love sarcasm, avoid direct confrontation and the pursuit of root-to-end entanglement, satire gives people the illusion of penetrating the world, psychological comfort. It is much more boring to want everyone to be English.
Without the big story, the mind of doubt is complex, as if there are no goals, nothing to do. Confucianism's accession to the WTO is over, not beyond the birth of the Taoist Buddha, has the upper hand is the persistent anxiety. Young people are thought to be anxious about garage and class mobility, but those who really want them are burying their heads. Anxiety is an intellectual suspicion, a latent feeling, something that cannot be filled after these desires are realized: lack of strength. Our most feared questions today, "interesting" and "then"; the most common answer, "boring" and "do not know." Anxiety is a bad thing if you follow Kierkegaard's meaning, because there are so many choices that there is a "dizziness of freedom". But behind him, somehow, against religion, he can return to the ultimate value. We are anxious to choose a story in trepidation, but there is no end to salvation.
Jacques Soren Obe Kierkegaard (May 5-11, 1855), Danish theologian, philosopher, write
Go back to ourselves. Lost the support of grand narrative, what is our personal story. What else can I do and I have to continue. Don't have to bite the scalp, it's not good to be dejected. Look for new narratives that contain language of uncertainty. But surely someone will continue to doubt. After the end of our conversation, friends of history came and said that your subject is eager for a new ideology. It has long been commonplace in our history, and it is in vain. It can be seen that being a historian who joins the WTO is as rare as the political scientist who made the world.
The snow rested, and it was time to go for a walk. I wish you all the best.
Reply: Wu Qi (single reading editor)
long time no see.
I have received letters for some days. Although I have been in contact on the Internet, I still feel that it is difficult to write a letter.
Now I had just arrived at the bookstore office and realized that there was nothing particularly urgent today, there were no meetings scheduled in advance-the most relaxing moment since I had been working as an editor, so I sat down and did something that editors love to do.
You used to laugh at me, and I laughed at others. In the past, I couldn't stand those who blamed public space and ruined others in their personal lives. It is also true today. The reason is simple. Such people are not credible. And when I found myself inevitably entering the content industry, and in the long tradition of speaking, I found that it was not so easy to draw a line with the people I opposed. It feels like a relay, the person in front falls, you are not likely to cross him directly, you can only continue to run from where he fell, his jealousy is also your back. Therefore, the difficult problem is no longer what we say, but how to do it. "Public knowledge" is dumped. How do you choose?
I heard that you discussed "the politics and history of the next generation" in Oxford. I remember that we also discussed in Beijing how "change the world is possible", but what the past world is, why did the previous political and historical practices fail, to me? In fact, these issues have not been clarified. Looking at the recent work of many young writers and directors trying to touch history, there is a strong sense of out-of-focus, a vague, inextricable and powerless. Whether we continue to melancholy repay the debt of the 20th century, or release and transform it based on the progress it provides, determines our imagination of the "newcomer", and we seem to have differences.
I think we all agree that you said that people’s interest in the "big story" has been broken, whether it is the left-wing consensus on the "community" or the crisis that neoliberalism has already revealed in the triumph, in rhetoric and practice. In the sense that they are no longer futuristic. People have been disappointed, and it seems that they have also resisted. The society has maintained an amazing calm in a remarkable boiling.
But I don't agree with Fukuyama's "end" tone, which, more broadly, is an elite crisis and, more specifically, a scepticism about the social programs offered by the mainstream elite. To what extent, and to what extent, such judgments have always been dubious. What is the subject of history? Who are the people? These questions, once ripping up the intellectual world, are now completely unanswerable. So what is behind the deconstruction, the anxiety, the irony and the nothingness that pervades us? I'm afraid they're just high-level silences and delicate evasions, excuses for their inability to explain reality and to touch upon the future.
In this sense, the narrative stops and should stop. And the next question that makes us anxious is, what are the new narratives, or the alternatives to them? This is also the answer I try to find in the editorial work. Traditional literature, journalistic writing is often tiresome not so serious that the entire writing paradigm needs to be updated, but that the core of content is often lost in those forms of games. What are our concerns? What kind of person are you writing about? How do you write people? We all write on proven, safe premises and don't really face the problem.
Look for new storytellers and, more importantly, direct-hit stories and stories. The recent reading experience, indeed, is that those who don't write for a living are more likely to impress me and sometimes even sink those cliches like cruise missiles. But this is wrong, and a large number of authors already in "structure" can provide this rate-they are ignored and repressed in this wave of changes and in the new reading interface. It is not necessary here to cite some special examples of the Pei Village Literary Group. The author's sources are actually quite extensive: professors, students, white-collar workers, farmers, Internet celebrities, playwrights. In their narratives, and especially in their self-narratives, I vaguely felt the change, the direct, the powerful friction, the honest appeal that no longer evaded and could not avoid.
I don't know if it is a huge influence in the legend of the Internet. It is only today that it really sinks to the wider class and makes these sounds come to light. So outside the internet? Is a certain social transformation also in preparation? No one seems to be able to give a definitive answer. This is not a bad thing, or I hope not. Before the car arrives in the mountains, there is nothing in the middle, writing and living like the same, and finally have to rely on their own methods to get to the end. When others can't answer for them, they will start to answer themselves. And we, who are still extravagant about "how to change the world" and "the politics and history of the next generation", should also provide their own versions.
In this sense, people are truly equal, we are all in the trap set by the times.
Recently, I was infected with a kind of "rogue" optimism, which may also be a teaching from Chinese culture. Everything is a starting point. Rather than saying that the Enlightenment is defeating, it is better to say that the Enlightenment is beginning. We are fortunate to witness such a period of mud and sand, without clear (total) goals, only chaotic and blind passion. Change is often in this history. Infinite pessimism, in turn, is the possibility of equal amount. This is certainly not a "positive reflection", but perhaps what Arendt called "active life."
Hannah Arendt (14 October 1906-4 December 1975), 20th century thinker and political theorist
This is actually what the friends including you are convinced (including Ren Ning in the investment community, I hope he can also join us in the discussion), you show a more positive approach to technology and business. The posture, for example, learning from them to face problems and solve problems, the soldiers will block the water to cover up the strength. Ask our peers, those potential "comrades-in-arms", who has such determination? Most people just saw the sunset, and just heard the horn has disappeared.
Of course, this is probably my psychological self-hypnosis, in order to face the psychological basis of daily work. However, the narrative on an individual basis is the most basic narrative unit in the world today. It is the only conclusive thing. From the perspective of communication effects, it is indeed convenient for everyone to criticize and understand. In the sense of Foucault, this may be called "self as a method." Those who claim to care about the world and care about human beings really regard the crisis of the world as a crisis of self, seeing it as a process of mutual internalization, a common difficulty, and not using each other as an auxiliary framework. , explanation, or external location. So truly walk in the world, become one of the stories, a sample of the test - even if it eventually becomes a wild value. That feeling should be like the word you quoted, "free dizziness", and it is only in this dizziness that you can get "ontological security."
Finally, there are indeed several historians who have joined the WTO for us to learn. (I don't know if you can provide a sample of several eminent political scientists? In today's political spectrum, the latter seems to be more scarce?) Peking University Zero teacher and teacher Luo Xin can write beautiful articles, and there is no futile at all. Ivan Jablonka, a French historian who met in a bookstore a while ago, has also taken the initiative to stop his annoying academic writings since 2012 and turn to more popular non-fiction, essay-style writing. . I think there are more people like this. They are still trying to tell a story. In fact, the methods and stories are not necessarily new, but they still have effect for understanding and even transforming the world.
I hope that all the things we talk about can be put into practice as soon as possible.
Look forward to meeting at Oxford this year, when it should be summer.
I have always remembered that you advised me not to run into the developed world, where there is no cure. Recently, there is another kind of voice growing stronger in the heart, as a reminder to our common: here and now, visual life, is their own ground.
This article from the micro-channel public number: Single Reading (ID: dandureading), Author: Xiaoyu, Wu Qi. The first picture comes from: Visual China.
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