Why is there only five sets?

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Why is the Black Cat Sheriff only five episodes?

This article comes from WeChat official account: short History (ID:tengxun_lishi), the original title "Black Cat Sheriff" has only five episodes of the real reasons. "author: Yan Xilin, cover: Oriental IC."

The cartoon Sheriff Black Cat has been dead for 32 years.

In 1987, the fifth episode of the film was broadcast, and the black cat sergeant shot the words "Please see the next episode" on the end of the film. Then there is no more then.

Why is there only five sets?

One of the most popular claims is that after the fifth episode, Dai Tielang, the film director, was suddenly notified to retire by the Shanghai Art Film Studio.

According to a report by Wenhui Daily in 2012, Dai Tielang once described his retirement situation as follows:

"I was called to the personnel office that day. They handed me a retirement certificate and said that I was old, and I should retire. I was stunned at that moment. After I woke up, I did not say a word and took retirement. The card turns and walks."1

However, a 2014 article by thepaper.cn said:

"according to a survey by thepaper.cn, Sheriff Black Cat is not Dai Tielang's last work at the American Studios. He wrote a play in the early 1990s and directed Forest, Birds and me, the Dog Ambulance team, and so on. Dai Tielang retired at the age of 61, and the exact time of retirement was September 1991. "2

That is to say, after the fifth episode aired (1987), Dai Tielang continued to work in the film studio for about 3 to 4 years.

The director's retirement is not the real reason for the death of the Black Cat Sheriff.

Another widely used saying is that there was a copyright dispute between Dai Tielang and Zhu Zhixiang, author of the black cat sheriff's fairy tale, in 1987.

This dispute does exist. The beginning and the end are as follows:

Zhu Zhiqiang's scientific fairy tale, Sheriff Black Cat, was published in 1982. The following year, the United States Film Factory began to adapt it into art cartoons, Dai Tielang as director. The film was marked "adapted from Zhu Zhixiang's scientific fairy tales of the same name" and paid for manuscripts. At the same time, with the consent of the American Film Factory, Dai adapted cartoons into art comics for publication and published them as a comic strip. Some of the comic books were not signed by the original author, Zhu Zhixiang, and received about 24000 yuan in revenue from the manuscript fee. In June 1987, they will go to court, saying that wear infringed the copyright and signature right of the Black Cat Sheriff, and demanded that Dai publicly publish an apology and compensate Dai for economic losses of 10, 000 yuan.

The case occurred in an era when the awareness of intellectual property rights of Chinese people was extremely weak. After dozens of mediation talks by the court, on December 31, 1987, the two men shook hands and ended. Dai Tielang took out 2880 yuan in compensation for Zhu Zhixiang, and Zhu Zhixiang withdrew the case. 3

In 2013, when Zhu Zhixiang was interviewed by the media, he mentioned this past:

"You (Dai Tielang) admit it wrong, you can. It is like this. Later, after the 1990s, Oriental TV station wanted to shoot "Black Cat Sheriff vs. Aliens" and asked him to be the director. I said It doesn't matter, this is ok, I don't care about the previous ones. We cooperate very well, and if it is encountered, it is still very good. It is not because of the lawsuit, it is an enemy. It is not such a thing."

India Xiyong, a good friend of Dai Tielang and director of production of the Black Cat Sheriff, has a similar statement:

“After four or five years of retirement, Dai Tielang and the Science and Education Film Factory once had a failed attempt to follow the “Black Cat Sheriff”, but the failure was not due to copyright issues.”5

In other words, both parties denied the rumor that "copyright litigation disputes caused the "Black Cat Sheriff" to die."

Photo: "Black Cat Sheriff II" comic strip, signature: compilation / Dai Tielang painting / Dai Tielang cover painting / Dai Tielang

From the fifth episode of 1987 to the retirement of Dai Tielang from the American Film Factory in 1991, there was no following in the period of the Black Cat Sheriff.

The real reason is that the beauty studio itself is in trouble.

From the annual report written by the leaders of the film industry (included in the "China Film Yearbook"), you can clearly see:

The situation of the beauty studio is divided in 1988. The fate of the Black Cat Sheriff (specifically the sense of existence in the report) is also the dividing point in 1988.

(1) before 1988

For a long time, Beauty Pictures was the only professional animation manufacturer in China, focusing on most of the animation artists and creators in China. Its production mode is funded by the state, issued production targets, after the completion of the film factory by the state-owned film company acquisition. The studio does not have to face the market directly, nor does it have to worry about profits and losses.

Since 1984, the matter has started to change. The TV market is becoming increasingly shaped, and foreign animation has entered China, and foreign-funded or Sino-foreign-joint animation companies are set up successively. The studios continue to maintain the production pattern of fine-grained (even at the expense of a single piece of work), regardless of market demand and playtime. to make a difference

This mode of production emphasizes more "artisticity", especially the "artisticity with ethnic characteristics" (used in foreign cultural exchanges). Therefore, the first and second episodes of "Black Cat Sheriff" born in 1984, although won the "Children's Cow Award" in the National Children's Film Appraisal (the first episode of the award), they were met with the "authoritative expert" cold reception. Approved "lack of national characteristics", had to temporarily stop.

In 1986, the American Film Factory finally noticed that the audience's demand for cartoons had "gradually changed from cinema to TV screen," and the urgent task was to catch up with the "series of art films" suitable for TV broadcasting needs. As a result, the long-standing black cat sheriff restarted that year and filmed the third, fourth and fifth episodes. The fifth episode was appraised as the excellent art film of 1987 by the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television.

In the "Chinese Film Yearbook 1987" and "Chinese Film Yearbook 1988" (title 1987, the content is the summary of the previous year, that is, 1986, the rest are the same) in the "art film" chapter, "Black Cat Sheriff" The sense of existence is very strong.

The former, including the deputy director of the American Film Factory and the director of the editorial office, Zhang Songlin, a review of the art film of the past ten years, the article introduced the "Black Cat Sheriff" and praised it "the plot is intense and interesting, and each The collection has a certain scientific knowledge and a sense of the times. "The black cat sheriff has become a favorite animated star in children's minds."

Also included is an interview with the director of the film factory, Qian Yunda, on Dai Tielang, detailing Dai's creative ideas. The latter, including the summary report of Yan Dingxian, director of the American Film Factory, on the work of the 1987 US Film Factory. The report focuses on the production of “series of art films”, among which there is “Black Cat Sheriff”. At the same time, a piece of Jin Bosong’s article praised the director Dai Tielang’s “style is clear”. The filming of “Black Cat Sheriff” was extremely strong in the society, and the theater effect was unprecedented... it is close to the reality of today’s children’s thinking. ". 7

In 2014, he served as the director of the United States Film Factory (1984-1988), and in an interview with a great news reporter, he did not press interference with the production of the "police chief of black cat" during an interview with a great news reporter.

"At that time, "Black Cat Sheriff" was already a mature series, the social response and the audience base were good, and based on the demand of the factory to promote the series of docking TV broadcasts, all kinds of realistic conditions are impossible to prevent the "black cat police" Long" continues to shoot."

With the aforementioned historical facts, Yan Dingxian’s statement is credible.

Photo: a report on the Black Cat Sheriff in the Chinese Film Yearbook 1987

(II) after 1988

It is too late for the transformation of the beauty studio. According to the Shanghai Film Records, in 1988, "a large number of original animation talents were lost and the economy was seriously declining". On March 3, 1989, in order to get out of the quagoon, "Meiying openly recruited factory directors. 8"

Zhou Keqin, who became director of Meiying in 1989, described 1988 in his annual summary report as follows:

"1988... is a year in which our factory has undergone major changes.... The staff of our factory has been seriously lost (the author's note: the job-hopping to a more lucrative foreign-funded or joint venture animation processing enterprise), which has gradually plunged our factory into a passive situation. The economy is seriously declining."9

The description of 1989 is even worse:

"AD 1989 is an unforgettable year for our beauty studio, because it is the most difficult year since our factory was established. In the past few years, the creative staff of our factory has flowed to several foreign animation processing factories in the south, from 1986 to In 1989, nearly 100 people were outflowing, mainly animation and animation design of cartoons. A large number of outflows of human resources caused faults in the structure of the creative staff of our factory, causing a decline in production capacity and aggravating the economic downturn. Production profits fell from 1.43 million in 1987 to In 1988, 480,000.... With the economic difficulties, the ideological confusion in the factory and the distraction of the people directly affected the cohesiveness and combat effectiveness of the whole factory. This severe situation has been reduced to 'great escape'. , 'big shipwreck'." 10

Why is the brain drain so serious that the beauty studio is almost capsized? The following recollection of the employees of the American Studios is very illustrative:

"I worked for Deer and Bull for a whole year, earning only 800 yuan more than usual, and I worked for Pacific Animation. I only did some simple tasks that didn't have to use my head, 5000 yuan a month." 11

At that time, the US film factory was still a planning system, and it was maintained by running the indicators of its superiors. The specific indicators are about 30~40 per year. Each 10 minutes, Zhongying Company buys the film at a fixed price. (The box office has nothing to do with Meiying. In fact, almost all the cartoons will lose at that time.) How much is this money? The talents are all running, and if the indicators are not completed, the income will drop sharply; the next year's indicators may be reduced, resulting in a vicious circle - in the early 1990s, the US film factory had to "sell indicators."

In this harsh factory environment, the Black Cat Sheriff>Series is hard to put the schedule.

For example, in the series production in 1988, only one story commissioned by the United Nations, "Pipi's Story", and some foreign processing business - the reward for receiving foreign work, is richer than the completion of the medium shadow; it is also better than the production of "black cat". Sheriff" makes money. To be a "Black Cat Sheriff" is nothing more than two ways, either by a fixed price to buy by China Film, or to sell to a TV station ("Transformers" and other overseas cartoons, early or even free for Chinese TV broadcasts, in order to open the surrounding market) .

The environment outside the factory is also not very good. For example, in 1990, a deputy director of film production at that time criticized the Black Cat Sheriff in an article:

"as a result of the television broadcast a large number of foreign cartoons, and domestic cartoons only short films. Lack of excellent series of cartoon scripts. Just take the series "Sheriff Black Cat", which is loved by children as an example, the script structure is loose, there is no overall idea, lack of continuous movements, random layout of the plot, there is no end, interrupted production, which is a great pity. "12

This criticism is in place, as a pioneer in the domestic series of cartoons, the Black Cat Sheriff does have a rough side.

By the 1990s, mature animations in Europe and the United States, such as Transformers, Astro Boy and Seven Dragon beads, had already occupied the TV screen in China, and the appreciation level of Chinese animation users had been improved as a result.

I missed the Black Cat Sheriff at the time node, and I stayed in the fifth episode.

Photo: The Black Cat Sheriff's Episode 4, "The Husband's Sucking" is a black memory of many children's childhood.

Reference materials:

Director Dai Tielang: art is my destination for the rest of my life. Wen Wei Po, October 23, 2012.

Chen, "Sheriff of the Black Cat" only shoots the sad story behind five episodes. Thepaper.cn, Dec. 22, 2014.

③ In the general process, see:<``Sheriff of Black Cat'' to Execute the copyright case, Jiefang Networks News Morning News, October 18, 2010. The basis for judicial adjudication at that time can be found in Lv Shuqin, Pu Zengping, ``Legal Issues in Copyright Litigation of Black Cat'' >Journal No. 4, 1989.

4 "Who's "Black Cat Sheriff"", CCTV "First Line" column, 2013/04/26.

Chen, "Sheriff of the Black Cat" only shoots the sad story behind five episodes. Thepaper.cn, Dec. 22, 2014.

6 see Zhang Xi, Zhang Huilin / ed. Brief History of Animation Industry Development in China and Foreign countries, Ocean Publishing House, 2014, P137 ≤ 188.

7 see in turn: pine Forest, "carrying forward the traditional efforts and Innovation-Review of Fine Arts and movies in the past Ten years", included in the Chinese Film Yearbook 1987, P6 / 2 / 6. Qian Yunda, Why do Children like Black Cat Sheriff, in Chinese Film Yearbook 1987, P6 / 13 / 6 / 15. Yan Dingxian, Review of American Film creation and production in 1987, included in Chinese Film Yearbook 1988, P6 / 1 / 6. Jin Baisong, Modern themes and Modern Concepts in Chinese Art Films, in Chinese Film Yearbook 1988, P6 / 9.

8 Shanghai Film Journal, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Press, 1999, P101.

In 9 weeks, Ke Qin, "Seeking Development in Competition - Reviewing the Beauty of 1988", included in "China Film Yearbook 1989", P79.

10 weeks Keqin, "Mei Ying": Unforgettable 1989, included in "China Film Yearbook 1990", P117.

11 John A. Rand/Editor, Zhang Huilin/Translated, Asia-Pacific Animation, Communication University of China Press, 2006, P25. Quoted from: Gong Chengbo / editor, "Chinese Animation History", China Radio and Television Publishing House, 2015, P206.

Yang Xiang, the present situation and Prospect of Animation production Units in China, Film No. 12, 1990. This article is also included in the Chinese Film Yearbook 1991.

This article comes from WeChat official account: short History (ID:tengxun_lishi), the original title "Black Cat Sheriff" has only five episodes of the real reasons. "author: Yan Xilin, cover: Oriental IC."

* the article is an independent point of view of the author, which does not represent the position of the tiger olfactory net. This paper is published by the tiger olfactory net authorized by the short history, and edited by the tiger olfactory net. Reprint this article with the consent of the author, and please attach the source (tiger olfactory net) and links to this page. Original link: https://www.huxiu.com/article/308142.html

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