This article is transferred from WeChat public number: Azure Myt ( ID: Azure Myt ), author: LC3 Yunnan - Vietnam Railway, head picture from: vision china.
Few people know that Henan was once the province with the longest running mileage of narrow-gauge railways in China.
Now these narrow-rail railways have all been shut down.
What is a narrow track? As the name implies, it is narrower than the railway we usually see.
In our country, whether you take a high-speed train or a subway, city iron, light rail, tram, the majority of the lower track is a 1435 mm gauge. It is precisely because of the unification of the gauge that the railway company can operate across the line; for example, from the Beijing-Guangzhou line to the Longhai line, the Beijing train can be directly connected to Urumqi. Abroad, the unification of gauge brought more play, the train to the subway station is nothing new.
More than a decade ago, experts who planned the Beijing - Shanghai high-speed railway debated whether to choose magnetic levitation or wheel-rail technology, and eventually magnetic levitation failed. The main reason was that magnetic levitation cost was high and the technology was not mature. Another important reason was that the wheel-rail technology could make use of the existing railway network and high-speed EMU trains could run across the line without building too many high-speed railway lines to reach more cities.
The 1435 mm gauge is called the standard gauge and is now the most widely used gauge in the world, while the narrower gauge is less and less used in the new railway. The narrow track I'm going to introduce today is only 76cm wide. However, the 76 - centimeter narrow track once played an important role in Henan's transportation industry.
Henan was once the densest province with the longest mileage and the densest railway in China.
Henan's local narrow-gauge railway entered a construction climax in the 1960s and 1980s, with a cumulative mileage of more than 1200 kilometers, which is very rare among the domestic provinces. We should know that domestic railway construction was very limited before the mid - 1990s, with the average railway mileage in the central and western provinces roughly several hundred thousand kilometers. Henan does not rely on the national railway, and its own narrow-gauge railway has already formed a network, making a significant contribution to the development of the local economy. In the era of planned economy, Henan has found a way to develop the transportation industry in line with its own characteristics, which is worthy of affirmation.
Xu Dan's Narrow Rail Railway Opening Ceremony
Workers are pounding the ballast
Unlike special mining lines and forest dedicated railways in Sichuan and Northeast China, the narrow track railways in Henan are not only long in mileage and dense in road networks, but also serve the general passenger and freight transport business for the society, and are no different from the regular railways. This is the biggest characteristic and advantage of Henan local narrow track. Henan narrow-track railway network has been unknown for a long time, because Henan did not pay attention to its own image construction and propaganda. Now this historical wealth has not been fully utilized, a large number of road networks have been abandoned, historical and traditional things are rapidly disappearing, and the local finance is relatively abundant and the narrow track construction is cheap to use. I cannot help but say that it is a great pity.
Gondola cars for transporting livestock are hard to see in China today
However, in this short span of more than ten years, these railway lines have been shut down one after another, and now all narrow-gauge railway lines in Henan have been shut down.
One of the longest running railways in China
In Xuchang, Henan Province, in Zhoukou, there is a local railway with the longest mileage in operation in our country-Xu (Chang) Dan (city) narrow track railway (which is the narrow-track railway with the most complete equipment and the largest volume of transport in the country), and the local railway with the longest mileage. The railway, also the longest narrow rail in Henan Province, was once hailed as a "living landscape of the original industrial revolution" and "a living museum of the 18th century industrial revolution", but these two names also disappeared with the shutdown of the narrow track railway. While it was still on its way, there were even many foreign train fans who made a special trip to experience it.
Please ignore the small characters in the Xudan railway, which appears in the vertical elevation map of Zheng-Xu high-speed railway
The Xudan Railway was built in 1966 by self-financing in Henan Province. In the past, there were no railways and few roads in the east Henan Great Plain, covering more than 300 kilometers. After the Yellow River Huayuankou dyke burst in 1938, the rolling yellow water flooded 11 counties in the east of Henan Province, destroying villages and scattered people, forming the famous Yellow River flood area. As a result, the East Henan Plain was badly damaged, and the poverty of the eastern part of Henan became famous as a result. After liberation, although after rectifying the Yellow River Road, appease the people in the disaster area, but eventually due to traffic closed, slow recovery. 20 million disaster area people are eager to form their own transportation network at an early date. Therefore, when the news of the construction of the Xuchang local railway spread, thousands of people in the disaster areas nibbled dry grain, slept in the fields, and enthusiastically participated in the construction of roads. The strong desire of the people into a huge power, this railway is built in short time, rapid development, low cost, are the most in the country. For example, at that time, the national quasi-rail railway plain area was 85 to 1 million yuan per kilometer, while the early Xuchang local railway was less than 170000 yuan, and the cost of the new branch line was only 300000 yuan.
Xu Dan railway is an important transportation link for coal in the central plains.
In the past, each coal mine in Yuxian County was located in the mountainous area, which made it difficult to transport coal, and it often landed on the ground for spontaneous combustion; but in the east of Henan and even in the Great Plain of Northern Anhui, the folk lacked fuel, or swept the leaves of leaves, or used dried cow dung as fuel. Every time, the road leading to mining area, tens of thousands of people pull coal, forming a huge army of rickshaws, flooding into the mining area, road traffic is blocked as a result. And because of the coal shortage in eastern Henan, energy is not guaranteed, the industry is very weak. By the early 1960 s, Dancheng, Luyi, Fugou, Xihua, Taikang and other counties in eastern Henan had no lighting, no industry to speak of. After the completion of the Yudan railway, a sweep of historical relics. Now, the army of rickshaws pulling coal can no longer be seen, and millions of peasants can become rich; counties, power plants, flour mills, brick and tile factories, fertilizer plants, cement plants, and so on along the railway line, have been in succession since the 1960s. The East Henan Plain, which has suffered from "flood and drought locust soup" for more than 200 kilometers, presents a prosperous scene of flourishing industry, active market and abundant grain.
Xujing Railway played a positive role in the passenger and cargo diversion and consolidation of the Beijing-Guangzhou line. The Beijing-Guangzhou line passes through both sides of Xuchang City. The local railway has two reloading yards with a capacity of 600,000 to 700,000 tons. The raw coal from the Jixian coalfield is replaced with the Beijing-Guangzhou line truck. , Jiangsu, Hubei, Shandong and other provinces; steel, cement, fertilizer, pesticides, construction equipment and civilian living goods sent through the Beijing-Guangzhou line directly through the Xuchang local railway directly to the cities and counties of eastern Henan. The freight of the railway is mainly made up of coal, followed by building materials, bauxite, agricultural and sideline products, and daily necessities. All stations in the whole line handle cargo operations, but do not handle dangerous goods. In addition to the Shenshen Station to Xuchang West Station section, Huaiyang to Zhoukou branch line does not handle the passenger operation industry, Xuchang to Yucheng Inter-city stations handle the passenger operation industry. The small train has been running on it for more than 50 years, transporting millions of passengers and tens of millions of tons of goods, which has contributed to the economic development of Zhoukou. However, due to the operation of the “ant moving mountain” type, it is far from being able to adapt to the requirements of modern large-scale transportation. The trucks on this narrow-gauge railway have been shut down one after another, leaving only one bus that travels once a day, not a few years. The bus was also out of service, and many of the history was crushed under the footsteps of economic development.
The policy of Xujing Railway Operation Management is oriented to the local, facing the industrial and mining, facing the masses, fully reflecting the characteristics of the local railway. Passenger transport, set up a dense station, stop at the station, increase trains during slack season, reduce trains when busy farming, passenger trains and hanging gondola, so that farmers' livestock, rickshaws, farm tools, small items, etc. can be on board, people arrive To facilitate farmers to go to the meeting, visit relatives and friends. There are many special freight lines, and the special train can directly reach the mine factory. The trains can be loaded and unloaded at each station along the line, which fully shows the flexibility of the local railway.
Sitting on this small train, you can enjoy the beauty of the countryside in the Great Plains of the East in the open air. The warm sunshine prints the shadow of the train on the vast wilderness. At this moment, people seem to walk slowly from history through time and space. Come. This is a narrow-gauge passenger train that is rare in China and the world.
One person who took the train wrote: Through the window, you can see the endless crops, and sometimes you can see the white sheep. During the slack season, the country’s breakfast was late, and I saw the villagers holding the rice bowl in the car and eating at the entrance of the house along the line. Because the train was too slow, I could even see what was in the rice bowl. Every time there is a village, there are always a lot of naughty children whistling and greeting the passengers on the train.
Years of circulation, the four seasons of reincarnation. The small train that has been running for more than 50 years is like a brush with ink in the hands of Chinese painting masters. It slid over the Yudong Plain, and the thick ink turned light. The figure of the small train gradually became blurred, leaving only two tracks that witnessed the Central Plains. .
On the east side of the intersection of Sanba Road and Wenfeng Road in Xuchang City, a low-rise small brick house and a dilapidated waiting room are also the “ticket offices” of the small train. In the world’s most inconspicuous small railway station, the small train It is unique in its charm. The fare is really cheap, starting at 1 yuan, 4 yuan to Fuling, 14 yuan in Huaiyang, the full fare is 15.5 yuan.
Once Xuchang Little Railway Station
Today's station, shooting in the same location
At 7 o'clock every morning, the bus with the words "Zhu 3807 empty" printed on the front of the car departed from Xuchang on time, arrived at Yucheng at 1 pm, returned to Xuchang at 2:30 pm, arrived at 8:30 pm. Just 145 kilometers, running 6 hours in a single trip.
The wild whistle, the narrow rail, the slow speed, the rickety carriages, the comfortable buses, the luxury trains, the fast planes in the eyes of the foreign passengers, is a unique scenery, surprise, shock, Admiration became the most common expression of their journey. On this remote railway line, they often find some foreigners with blond hair and blue eyes carrying their bags. They sigh: "antiques, which were not seen decades ago, are still in operation in Europe," he said. Such a train can only be seen in the museum. This is the giant panda on the train. "
A retired old worker said that when the railway was built, all the rails were transferred from all parts of the country. Almost every part is a cultural relic, which is a Chinese railway museum.
Tickets used by Xujing Railway
The whistle and the impact of the wheel and rail trembled, and the passengers began to sway on the wooden chair of the carriage. Zhao Shifu, who has been working on the small railway for more than 20 years, said that under the traffic conditions at that time, the Xujing Railway quickly became the main trunk of Henan transportation because of its low cost, high throughput and manpower saving. In the glorious era of small railways, the transportation business is booming, and it is necessary to get acquaintances to transport goods.
Although in the past few decades, the Xudan small railway once provided the great convenience for the common people to travel and the freight outward transportation, had the endless brilliance, but now it actually steps towards the depression step by step. The internal reason is that it is unable to connect with the national railway trunk lines, the system is not smooth, the equipment is aging, the funds are insufficient, and many crossings along the line go unattended, so the accidents occur frequently every year, which seriously threaten the personal safety of the citizens. The external cause is that in the 1990s, with the acceleration of the construction of highway traffic network, the highway has been built between counties and counties, counties and townships, and even villages and villages. The vitality of highway transportation is infinite, which seriously squeezes the market of small trains. In recent years, the local railway bureau of Henan Province, whether passenger or freight, has seen its revenue shrink sharply and hardly make any money, he said.
What is the Henan narrow rail railway now?
The Xudan narrow-track railway is a microcosm of many small railways in Henan. After three years of hiking, I visited nearly 500 kilometers of narrow rail lines in the hope of documenting the small railways that had made outstanding contributions to Henan's transportation and economic development.
Xu Dan Railway Crossing in Xuchang City
The bottom of the picture has been plastered with cement and cannot be driven
The Qing River Bridge on Xu - dan Railway has not passed from above for many years.
Sunset over the Qingjian River Bridge
The intersection of the narrow gauge railway and the Beijing Guangzhou high-speed rail line
Departure Station Yucheng Station
Dancheng High School is well known in Henan Province and is an important source of famous university students.
The platform and track of Dancheng Station have been completely dismantled
The waiting room has collapsed
Inside the waiting room
Track near Dancheng Station
The 禹 (State) God (垕hou) narrow-gauge railway is an extension of the Xu-Yu Railway. It was built in 1972 and only handled the cargo business. It was demolished more than a decade ago. I visited all the places where the Lushen Railway could find traces on the satellite map. All the rails could not be found. Most of the sleepers disappeared. A large number of roadbeds were transformed into farmland and only a few traces were found.
Only subgrade and ballast, sleeper and track have been removed
Sleepers scattered by the side of the road
Hangang Station is a big station on the Yushen Railway, but it is also a "secret station"
Xuchang Branch Bureau (abolished) Hangang station staff canteen
Station dispatching room
Empty station, if it is not next to the station, I don’t believe that it is the railway station.
Note: The Yuhao Railway marked in the drawing should be Yubo ( B - Class ) Railway correctly
Note: The 禹 铁路 railway marked in the figure should be the 禹亳 (bó) railway
A culvert on Yu - Shen Railway
Above the culvert
Arch bridge next to the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Transfer
This is the best preserved section of the whole line
The narrow-gauge railway merchant line, once used in almost all building materials in Shangqiu city, was pulled by it. It has been dismantled for more than ten years. Many Shangqiu people do not know this railway. Its sense of existence is too low. It has only found a relic in the entire Shangqiu urban area. The former track has become a zebra crossing. The bridge was also transformed into a landscape bridge for people to walk. It leaves few traces, and it rarely appears on the Internet, even though the Shangqiu Local Yearbook has a record of less than 50 words.
Shangmao narrow track railway bridge transformed into landscape bridge
You can also find its trace on the old map.
From the satellite map, we can see the direction of the Shangmang line in the Xiazhang section, but no traces can be found after the field visit.
The line from Zhumadian to Runan, from Runan to Pingyu, and from laojunmiao to Dushan. The Zhumadian - Runan section, which was completed and opened to traffic in 1981, is 33 kilometers long and has five stations, mainly for transporting stones and giving consideration to passenger transport. The line stationed in Ru is the last line to be shut down in Henan's narrow-gauge railway. It was shut down in July 2013 due to an accident and changed dramatically in just five years.
There are many locomotives and vehicles which have been used for Ru line at Lao Jun Temple Station.
The iron sheet at the junction of the cars is gone
The mark of the SARS period remains in the carriage
Laojun Temple Station
There are also testimonials issued by the local railway public works office in the 1980s and 1990s
Narrow rail railway bridge
A railway bridge without guardrail
Walk on the bridge to enjoy the vast fields
Houses were built and articles piled on the railway
Rape was planted on the railway
Crossing leveled with cement
The railway at the door of the house
Xingyang Steam Train: When Ancient Tradition Encounters Modern Civilization
Passengers on the Zheng - Xi high-speed railway may not have noticed the steam train under the bridge. Perhaps they never thought that there could still be such a harmonious old steam train around the EMU line.
After nearly 200 years of ups and downs of steam locomotives, not only carried a heavy modern industrial civilization, but also accumulated a wealth of human connotations, from the momentum of steam locomotives that the momentum of the wheel rolling forward the spirit of a generation after generation.
Xingyang City is a county-level city 25 kilometers west of Zhengzhou City. There are five workshops ( branch factories ) in the building materials factory, of which the fifth workshop is the transportation workshop. Two C2 - type narrow-gauge steam trains are running here, which are specially responsible for pulling clay used for brick making to the sites where raw materials are stored in each workshop. Since the laterite on the purchased land has been dug up, the railway line of the building materials factory has been extended southward by 1km, just past the bridge across the ditch of the Zheng - Xi high-speed railway, so there is a wonderful picture of the intersection of the steam train and the high-speed train.
Xingyang small train belongs to the fifth workshop of the building materials factory, that is, the transportation workshop. it mainly transports earthwork from chengguan township to the provincial building materials factory for brick making, with a total mileage of 15km and more than 20 sections. the carriage is 2m long, 1m wide and 0.6m high, and each section can carry about 5tons. Except for the special weather, this small train stopped running from 1972 to 2011 and has been running in Xingyang ravines for nearly 40 years.
Xingyang's steam train runs mostly in ravines, and culverts and bridges are also laid. The small train spewed white smoke and passed through culverts and bridges in the sound of the flute.
The Suohe Bridge, built in October 1970, is a special train for the Xiaoyang train.
In July 2011, Henan Building Materials Factory, which has a glorious history of nearly 60 years, officially stopped production, and the small train also stopped production. The narrow track that witnessed the past 40 years was soon dismantled and completely disappeared in history.
Where is the future of Henan narrow-gauge railway?
To solve this problem, I looked overseas and experienced the narrow track train from Kuala Lumpur to Penang, Malaysia.
The narrow rail of Malaysia has been upgraded very early, and a protective net has been installed: the narrow-gauge EMU produced by China CZ Zhuzhou Locomotive Works can run to 125km/h on this railway, and it feels that the train is very stable, not too Big shaking.
Speed 121 km / h
Riding comfortably, which is no less than the EMU train of our country, is worthy of being a product of the middle car.
The above marks Zhuzhou Locomotive Factory. CSR is the English abbreviation of the original CSR. A few years ago, CSR and CNR merged into a Chinese car.
Compared with the narrow railway in Henan, the quality of the line is much better.
A few years ago, I also experienced the Vietnam North-South Railway and the famous Yunnan-Vietnam Railway. The situation of the meter-rail railway in Vietnam is similar to that of the narrow rail railway in Henan Province, the quality of the line is poor, the train does not run fast, and the speed of 30-70km/h is maintained for a long time.
The Da Nang to Hue section is rated as one of the 50 places that must be visited by the National Geographic of the United States. Many Chinese and foreign tourists come to experience it.
Similar to the Henan narrow-gauge railway, the urban railway is adjacent to the residential area.
Long - distance travel is not much competitive compared with air travel. Even tickets are bought early. Cheap air fares are lower than train berth tickets. From Hanoi, Vietnam's capital, to Da Nang, the third largest city, the train takes nearly 24 hours, while the plane takes only one and a half hours.
I experienced Jetstar Airlines from Hanoi to Da Nang, and the attendance was more than 90 %, while the sleeper train I was in had only five or six people, and my six people only came up with a master on the way.
Low-cost airlines with a very high attendance rate
Unattended sleeper compartment
Sleeper carriages provide sockets and trash cans, which are worth learning from the national railway
The bed is very clean
The Vietnam-Vietnam railway section of Hanoi to the old street of the border city of China and Vietnam, a short 300-kilometer journey, it takes 9 and a half hours.
LC3 train schedule
The hard seat has a high attendance rate and the fare is affordable, which is similar to the domestic green leather car fare.
Some carriages of Henan narrow track railway also have such protective nets to prevent the ballast from spilling into the carriages
About half of the seats in soft-seat cars are occupied, and many foreigners will choose it
Dongfanghong 21 Meter Rail Locomotive imported from China has been used in the Yunnan-Vietnam railway section.
Looking back to the country.
The Dian-Vietnamese railway in China is now even more miserable: all passenger trains have been shut down, with only a few pairs of freight trains remaining, and last year's only Kunming to Shizui commuter train stopped due to subway construction.
Once the Yunnan-Vietnamese railway branch line, a Bishi railway, opened a tourist train, a short ticket price of more than 100 kilometers, relying on "where Dad to go" and other variety show publicity passenger flow is not bad.
The picture comes from the post bar @ Moonlight Glazed Glass Frost and Snow
The Jiayang train in Sichuan is even more famous. Every year, when the rape blossoms are open, many tourists come to experience it.
Can the Henan narrow-gauge railway learn this way and start a tourist train to make these lines come alive again?
In recent years, I have heard from time to time the news that the Chaoyang ditch to Daye section of the Chaoqi railway is going to run a tourist train, and that there are occasionally pressurized locomotives passing here. I have made three special visits here. Finally, when he was about to give up, he caught a ballast locomotive.
Narrow Rail EMU
I walked through the entire journey of the tourist train. This section really deserves to be developed into a tourism project. Here I would like to make a few comments to the project side: the initial and final arrivals are inconvenient, and the route runs too long (it may take 5-6 hours to complete), design Can the steam locomotive be more historical, not like in the park. Since this project was invested by private enterprises, the funds were insufficient, and the opening time was delayed. From 16 years to the end of 19th, I really hope that it will eventually be able to really start and let the Henan narrow-gauge railway re-live.
Written at the end
Zhumadian Local Railway Bureau
The road renovated in front of the railway bureau
The roads renovated in front of the railway bureau replaced the narrow-gauge railways, and the faster high-speed rail replaced the narrow-gauge railways. This is a historical necessity. My ability is limited. All I have done is to record the narrow-gauge railway that has contributed to the transportation industry in Henan Province.
China has developed too fast, and the station has only been suspended for five years, so it has changed so much. For the children of the future, can they still see the remains of the narrow-gauge railway in Henan?
Henan narrow-gauge railway, it is too unknown. I grew up in Henan from an early age, but I have never heard anyone around me mention it. A lot of Henan people have never heard of the narrow track in Henan. What is even more likely is that the children of the future will not have the opportunity to understand the Henan narrow-gauge railway line that reached more than 1,200 kilometers in its heyday. The Henan narrow-gauge railway will eventually be buried in history.
This paper is transferred from WeChat Public name: Azuremyst (ID:azuremys), by the author of the yunyunyue metric orbit.
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