Academic discrimination, destined from "born"

Academic discrimination, destined from "born"

Head Figure from: Oriental IC; article from the micro-channel public number: Utopia imaginist (ID: lixiangguo2013); Author: Young; Editing: Green Wing, Young, shake the stars

Today, when the president of the Palace Museum, Sui Xiangxiang, delivered a keynote speech in Beijing, he casually mentioned that "more than 40,000 people have signed up for the Forbidden City. After raising the threshold, they can apply for a master's degree or above in a prestigious university." The discussion of netizens.

Some netizens believe that only the master's degree of a famous university is a kind of academic discrimination, and there are different voices. "In the end, it is the sourness of the scum, and the qualification is a standard for the ability to identify."

The first criterion for the employer to screen resumes is the level of education, which has become an invisible rule in many industries.

Today, a famous school degree no longer means more than scores and abilities, we often ignore that family origin can affect the quality of a person to obtain a diploma, class is gradually solidifying through education. In the United States, education and diplomas are becoming the path for rich families to replicate and reproduce themselves.

It is also possible to give our children a chance to break down the barrier of the class. Advocation of more inclusive standards of education is not the abandonment and envy of the academic background of famous schools, but of the``famous school'' label.

The son of a dirty politician will only become a dirty politician, and the child of a doctor who only thinks about making money will eventually become a doctor. - "Detective Conan: The Undead of Baker Street"

1. Education doesn't give you a well-paid position, but a diploma can

The traditional modernization theory holds that education and acquired efforts are the ladder of social mobility, but with the development of the times and society, this view is suffering the most violent impact.

According to American sociologist Collins, the ladder of education is a myth that is carefully crafted, but it solidifies class differences.

In his observations of Western society, he found that in the mid-19th century, the rapid expansion of education did not increase the opportunities for mobility. People from different social classes had the same chance of survival as their fathers.

The reason for this is that with the expansion of education, the cultural certificate, which is regarded as a qualification certificate in the education system, is also depreciating.

When a high-school diploma that has been regarded as an elite has become popular, undergraduate training is replaced by graduate and doctoral education, with the attendant higher demand for education.

Taking the recruitment requirements for management positions as an example, in 1937, only 12 per cent of employers required college degrees in 1938, up to 68 per cent in seven years. By the end of the 20th century, university education had become an indispensable document.

As a result, the specific content of education becomes insignificant, and it is increasingly important to obtain a specific degree and formal diploma.

Today, the work of many graduates is not related to the majors they are studying. They often complete training or proficiency in skills within two or three months after they officially take up their jobs. The standard "religious diplomacy".

Driven by this diplomacy, the recruiter will transfer the power of recruitment to the admissions committee of the prestigious school: only concerned with the students entering the prestigious school, but indifferent to the non-prestigious students.

Lauren A Rivera, a professor at Northwestern University, reveals the cruel fact in her book: in her study of the recruitment process for top financial companies in the United States, she found that in many companies, especially the most famous companies in the industry, the resumes of non-famous school students are discarded directly without a glance, unless the applicant gets a private recommendation to allow the resume to enter the review process through the "back door." Stephanie, an investment bank hiring manager, describes the way she sift out resumes, noting:

"It's like this. I have a special day to see... Brown University's resume, Yale's resume. I have no reason to go to the 'best of the rest' resume, unless I have nothing to do... Unfortunately, this is not very beneficial for some students. If you are not a target school student, there is no easy way to enter the company."

For non-prestigious students, their resumes are like falling into a black hole, and there is no response. Because people generally think that "first-class people enter first-class schools," that is, the best and brightest people are concentrated in the top schools in the country.

As a result, students who graduated from non-famous schools were labeled "he is not first-rate" and were given up directly in resume screening, losing the opportunity to prove themselves.

Some people may wonder:``This doesn't exactly reflect the ability of education to change the class? Students in famous schools get higher pay jobs. ``.

In fact, in the statement of this sentence, education is in fact the pronoun of a diploma _ it is not an education that can change the class, but a better diploma can get a high-paying job, thus changing the class. Education itself is a process, and in such a context it becomes a result and the side reflects the status of a diploma.

Although many science and engineering education is more and more closely related to production practice, it is difficult to conclude that students' study is only for a certificate, but it is undeniable that education certificate is playing a greater role in recruitment and selection than education itself.

"starting line"

2. Intergenerational transmission of education: an important reason for affecting admission

In the face of the diploma society we are moving towards, the influence of family environment on educational isolation and intergenerational transmission is obvious.

In general, the family background is directly proportional to the tuition fees and additional educational resources available, which in turn determines whether a person receives a diploma or a quality diploma.

In 2013, the documentary "Zi Fei Yu" followed the life of a poor child in a special primary school in Hong Kong - "Fresh Fish School".

The school is always hosted by the local fresh fish line. Most of the students received are from the bottom-level families in Hong Kong. Some of them come from single-parent families. Some of them have a hard-to-work income from their parents. The majority of their parents are physical workers, and it is difficult to provide good family education.

Learning from the subjects of English that are essential for further studies in Hong Kong, you can see the incompetence of these children and parents: Yan Weihao, who has excellent grades in the class, has not been good enough in English, but it is difficult for mothers to come up with money for tutoring English. Let this problem continue.

The other student's parent, Huang Jiqi's mother, was asked about how the English "expensive" spelled the homework when she was accompanied by her daughter, and she gave the wrong answer.

< child non-fish

Under the premise that the school's educational resources are very limited, the children born at the bottom are often at a disadvantage in the education competition. The influence of the family on extracurricular learning and extracurricular activities is manifested between the children's gestures.

Children from wealthy families tend to have easy access to education from famous teachers and test training institutions, and their extracurricular activities are more colorful, and the soft power exercised through extracurricular activities is more popular with admissions committees.

Under the condition that famous American schools generally favor personal quality, the transmission of family cultural capital has become an important way to enter the university smoothly and obtain a diploma.

In a study of St. Paulo's Elite Middle School, a professor of Columbia's Department of Sociology found that children from wealthy families were able to deal with any social occasions, thinking about the eighth-century ancient English narrative poem and the story in popular films.

As the French sociologist Bourdieu said: "For some people, learning elite culture is a great success, and for others, it is just an inheritance."

Today, culture has become a kind of “capital” that can have value like money, used to obtain social advantages and cultural credentials. The commitment to achieve the "American Dream" by individual efforts has become a fantasy in the premise of social inequality.

Whether out of goodwill or not, neglecting the influence of family economic and cultural capital, blindly advocating individual efforts will cover up the lingering social closure and class barriers in our society, thus aggravating social inequality.

The process behind the illegal trade in order to get a diploma is also striking: in March 2019, a Chinese billionaire, a Chinese billionaire, paid $6.5 million to get his daughter to Stanford, a Chinese billionaire, in an admissions scandal in March 2019. To forge a sailing athlete's identity for his daughter, to be eligible for a special enrollment.

Under the circumstance of power and money, the diploma becomes a commodity that can be purchased.

In addition, in the actual recruitment, the cultural choice of the individual's personal qualities makes the children who are admitted to the prestigious schools and poor families equally difficult.

Even if you try your best to win the starting line and get into the ideal university, students from cold backgrounds may lose at the finish line-recruitment is an unequal selection in itself.

Genius Gunners

3. Cultural choices in the application: the game of capital and ability

In the opinion of recruiters, personal experiences that demonstrate a person's true all-round development and achievements are often reflected in volunteerism or social activities, which are often linked to paid club activities or transnational volunteerism.

Even some students from famous American schools ridiculed: "Either famous enterprises, or the Caribbean" - If there is no glamorous and famous internship experience in the summer vacation, then it is best to go to overseas to participate in volunteer service activities. The experience of value.

In a mock recruitment, banker Christopher as an interviewer also clarified this: "I will ask him about volunteering... He is driving a meal with his mother, or going to Costa Rica and the Habitat for Humanity. (Habitat for Humanity) Building a house together?"

The personal hobbies and activities in the resume are also full of demands on low-and middle-income people. Lance, a recruitment consultant who has been in the recruitment industry for many years, describes:

"people can list all kinds of things in the activity column, such as I can ski, I can read palms, I like car rallying, or something. But if it's just a list of things or interests, then they're just meaningless words to me. I want to know。 Whether this person has found some kind of interest or enthusiasm, not only did it, but also really decided to do it seriously. So good, you like skiing, but please tell me that you go 20 times a year to explain the problem. "

Tokyo Women's Picture Book

While it is often considered that these abilities or movements exhibit a personal life, they are selectively ignored: the ability to engage in such campaigns for a long time and in-depth, often not in the interest or ability of the individual, but in the availability of funds to support the cost of the field or equipment.

The cultural possession of extracurricular activities is included in the resume as an objective requirement and becomes an important indicator for evaluating a person's ability. The ability to be assessed is more recognized by the recruitment system, and the capital used to boost this ability has more room to function.

In addition, recruiters are more likely to engage in activities related to white upper-middle and upper-middle-class culture, setting up barriers for children from low-and middle-income families to enter the workplace.

Football, basketball and other more common sports are rejected. Grass hockey, squash, rowing and other activities that require a certain amount of capital investment are more popular with recruiters.

In the face of the impact of family capital, personal efforts appear to be minimal.

However, many people are slowly beginning to believe that this is caused by differences in personal abilities, ignoring the huge gap brought about by capital, and gradually turning it into their own creed, starting to believe that they belong to the best people, that the positions they get are due to their own abilities and that their elites deserve it.

Lauren A. Rivera, a professor at Northwestern University in the United States, points out that, when the labour market is more selective, it will actually increase discrimination, not less. When the number of applicants increases relative to the number of jobs, the recruiter can be more picky and more focused on the "personal ability" made by capital.

In the face of capital inheritance and elite reproduction invading the employment process, many companies are also changing strategies to increase racial and class diversity and reduce discrimination, but with little effect.

After the publication of "birth", some top companies found Professor Lauren A Rivera, hoping to listen to advice and increase equality in recruitment, but the suggestion that "do not consider only a small number of core schools, but cover students to form more diverse universities" is difficult because "We want diversity, but we can't sacrifice quality for it."

In short, the process and standards of recruitment are changing, but at least for now, the way it changes maintains the status quo. When it comes to birth, it seems that the more changes, the more the status quo is unchanged.

Employment, like education, is becoming the path of self-replication and reproduction of the American elite. Under the present situation that China tries to realize the fairness of education through the college entrance examination, how to ensure the equality in the process of the connection between education and employment is still a topic worthy of discussion and reflection.


[1] "The origin: the selection of inequality and the self-reproduction of the elite," Lauren A. Rivera.

[2] "Privilege: Behind the Elite Education in São Paulo High School", Simos Khan.

[3] "Diploma Society" by Randall Collins.

[4] "Our Children," by Robert Patnan.

When happiness knocks at the doo

This article from the micro-channel public number: Utopia imaginist (ID: lixiangguo2013); Author: Young; Editing: Green Wing, Young, shake the stars

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